Stative Verbs in English

Stative Verbs in English

Stative Verbs in English

Stative Verbs in English. Stative verbs (or State verbs) refer to verbs that describe a state, not an action. These are verbs that we rarely use in the Present Continuous form since they do not show actions. Having said that, this is changing, as languages often do. Below you can learn about how to use Stative Verbs and how to use some verbs as Stative and Dynamic (verbs that show action).

STATIVE VERBS

Remember that a Stative verb means that there is not an action happening. It is only a ‘state’.

Examples

  • In the context of the examples to the right, we would not be able to use the Present Continuous because the verbs represent a state, not an action.

List of Stative verbs

There are 4 general categories of Stative Verbs but remember that some of these verbs can be used in both Stative and Dynamic form. What makes them stative is that they are explaining a state, not an action.

EMOTIONS AND
FEELINGS
PERSEPTIONS
AND SENSES
OPINION POSSESION
AND SIZE
like,
dislike
love
need
prefer
want
wish
appear
feel
hear
look
see
seem
sound
smell
taste
agree
disagree
believe
know
imagine
think
understand
be
belong
have
own
posses
measure
weigh

VERBS THAT ARE STATIVE AND DYNAMIC

So, now we know that Stative verbs only show a ‘state’, so Dynamic verbs show ‘action’. Some examples of Dynamic verbs are: run, dance, shower, play, etc. We can see the action occuring. Some verbs can be used both as a state and as an action. Here are some examples.

Examples

  • Think as a stative mental state
    • I think she is right.
    • He thinks the meeting is on Monday. I think it’s on Tuesday.
  • Think as an action in progress with Present Continuous
    • Please turn down the music. I’m thinking.
    • He’s thinking of having the meeting on Monday.
  • to be as a state of someone’s personality
    • Jim is such a nice guy
    • She’s always fair.
  • to be as a temporary action that is happening right now
    • He‘s not being very friendly at all today.
    • I don’t think she’s being very fair to you.
  • to have as a state of posession
    • We have a house in Malaga
    • She has a lot of friends.
  • to have as an activity that is taking place now or soon.
    • I’m having a party this weekend.
    • She’s having some friends over tonight to watch a movie.

OTHER VERBS THAT CAN BE BOTH STATIVE AND DYNAMIC

  • Remember that when you want to use a verb in a Stative form it is a ‘state’
    • The dinner tastes great!
  • But when it is in a dynamic state, there is action.
    • We are tasting each wine.

Cursos Inglés

En la Escuela de Idiomas de la Cámara de Comercio, tenemos cursos de inglés para todas las necesidades y niveles. Pónte en contacto con nosotros a idiomas@camaradealava.com

Grammar

Now that you have read about Stative Verbs in English, take a look at our other Grammar posts:
Grammar: Present Continous
Grammar: Second Conditional

False Friends: career and degree

False Friends: Career and Degree

False Friends: career and degree. Oh how much do we hate those False Friends – the words that sound exactly like a word in a different language but has a different meaning. It sounds like it’s a friend, but it’s not. Curse you False Friends!!!

CAREER – PROFESIÓN / TRAYECTORIA

  • Career in English is a job that you have been doing for a long time (not your university studies)
    • Before her career in social work, she was a banker.
    • He’s finally retiring after a 40 year career in marketing.

DEGREE – CARRERA

  • a qualification given for finishing a university course
  • degree is the correct translation of ‘careera‘ in Spanish.
    • He has a degree in education.
    • Although he got his degree in History, he’s working in politics.

FALSE FRIENDS

Not that you had a look at False Friends: career and degree, have a look at our other False Friends posts:
1. Vocab Rehab: False Friends: Terrific and terrifying
2. Vocab Rehab: False Friends: Suburbs and slums
3. Vocab Rehab: False Friends: Sensitive and Sensible
4. Vocab Rehab: False Friends: Comprehensive and Understanding

Cursos Inglés

En la Escuela de Idiomas de la Cámara de Comercio de Alava, tenemos cursos de inglés para todas las necesidades y niveles.

  • Preparación de exámenes de Cambrdige, EOI, Oxford A2 a C2
  • Business English desde A1 a C2
  • Inglés General A1 a C2
  • Cursos de Conversación
English Grammar: Present Continuous

English Grammar: Present Continuous

English Grammar: Present Continuous. Both Spanish and English have a Present Continuous verb tense (I’m working / Estoy trabajando) and although their form is similar (verb to be + gerund), they are used differently. In English, we use the Present Continuous for: (1) things happening in the moment, (2) ongoing actions that are happening around the current time (3) annoying habits and (4) future plans.

FORM

The form of Present Continuous is the same in Spanish and English

  • Positive statements
    • Subject + verb to be + gerund
  • Negative statements
    • Subject + verb to be + not + gerund
  • Questions
    • Verb to be + subject + gerund

USES

THINGS THAT ARE HAPPENING IN THE MOMENT

  • Use present continuous to talk about something you are doing at the moment that you are saying it.
    • I’m writing this blog post right now.
    • I’m looking out the window.
  • NOTE: in Spanish you say ‘te escribo‘ in an email, but in English we say ‘I’m writing…‘ because for us it is something we are doing in that very moment. Learn more here.

ONGOING EVENTS / TEMPORARY SITUATIONS/HABITS

  • Present Continuous is also used for ongoing events or temporary situations. I may not be doing them at this very moment, but at this time in my life.
    • I’m learning to paint. (not right now, but I go to a class twice a week)
    • She’s not going to class this month. (She’ll go again next month)

ANNOYING HABITS

  • Use Present Continuous to show you are annoyed with someone’s habit.
    • You are always watching the TV!
    • He’s always complaining.

DEFINITE FUTURE PLANS

  • For definite future plans, we also use present continuous
    • After work I’m going to the gym.
    • Next month we are going to Malaga

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SPANISH AND ENGLISH

  • There are times when in English we use present continuous but in Spanish you use Present Simple.
  • In addition to the examples in the photo on the right, we have the following:
    • What time are you going? ¿A que hora vas?
    • Who are you going with? ¿Con quien vas?
    • I’m attaching the document you requested. Adjunto el documento que me hayas pedido.

English Grammar

Now that you have seen English Grammar: Present Continuous, take a look at our other English Grammar posts:
English Grammar: Second Conditional
English Grammar: Regret + gerund/infinitive

English Expression: Kill time

English Expression: Kill time

English Expression: Kill time. Another nice expression that translates perfectly into Spanish: matar tiempo. This makes it easy to remember and use so you can bump up your exam points or impress your boss.

KILL (THE) TIME

  • to do something not important while waiting for someone or something.
    • My flight doesn’t leave for another three hours, so I’m just killing time shopping and buying things I don’t need.
    • You know you always have to wait at the doctor’s office, so take something to kill the time.
    • Yesterday I had to wait for 30 minutes to talk to someone in customer service. Luckily, I was at home and killed time by cooking while I was waiting.

English Expressions

Now that you have learned English Expression: Kill time, take a look at our other Expression Session posts:
Expression Session: waste of time
Expression Session: it is what it is

Cursos Ingles Vitoria

En la Escuela de Idiomas de la Cámara de Comercio de Alava, tenemos cursos de inglés para todos los niveles y necesidades. Pincha aquí para recibir más información sobre las clases.

  • Preparación de Examenes de Cambridge, EILTS, Oxford Test of English
  • Business English – grupos presenciales y online
  • Business InCompany – individual o de grupos individualizados para tu empresa
  • Conversation classes
  • Inglés General
English Vocabulary: tenacious

English Vocabulary: tenacious

English Vocabulary: tenacious. There are lots of names for these kinds of people: persistent, tough, annoying. But, when we use the word tenacious, there is a strength behind it. We are talking about someone who won’t stop usually because they believe strongly in something.

TENACIOUS

  • Adjective
  • Someone who doesn’t stop until they achieve what they want.
    • Amnesty International is a tenacious advocate for human rights.
    • She’s a tenacious little girl and doesn’t accept no for an answer.
  • Something that is strong or not persistent.
    • We need to find a more tenacious metal for this project.
    • Julie really has a tenacious memory

TENACITY

  • noun
  • the quality of being very determned.
    • I admire your tenacity for change.
    • He showed a lot of tenacity, but in the end I’m not sure he is going to win.
  • The quality of persisting
    • The company has outlived the other ones out of sheer tenacity.
    • The tenacity of certain stories allow then to be told by each generation.

TANACIOUSLY

  • adverb
  • To achieve something in a tenacious way.
    • Joe is tenaciously battling the lawsuit in court.
    • We tenaciously record every event so that future generations will know what happened.

Cursos de inglés

En la Escuela de Idiomas de la Cámara de Comercio de Alava tenemos cursos de inglés para todos los niveles y necesidades, presencialmente y online.

English Vocabulary

Now that you have read about English Vocabulary: tenacious, take a look at our other Vocab Rehab posts:
Vocab Rehab: time off
Vocab Rehab: strive

English Grammar: Second Conditional

English Grammar: Second Conditional

English Grammar: Second Conditional.

No tengas miedo de la palabra condicional. No es TAN complicado y no es tan diferente en Castellano. Vamos a repasar la forma (la estructura de la frase Second Conditional), el uso (cómo usarla) y algunos ejemplos.

Don’t be afraid of the word conditional. It’s not THAT complicated and it’s not that different than Spanish. Let’s go through the form (the structure of the a Second Conditional sentence), the use (how to use it) and some examples.

FORM

Second Conditional form
  • Como puedes ver en la foto, utilizamos la cláusula If/Unless con el pasado simple/continuo seguido de una cláusula que utiliza would/could/might + infinitivo.
  • También podemos cambiar el orden de las cláusulas.
    • If I had more time off, I would read more.
    • I would read more if I had more time.
  • En castellano, dónde usamos subjuntivo, en inglés usamos pasado simple/continuo
    • Si tuviera más días libres, leería más.

USE

  • Cuando utilizamos el segundo condicional, estamos hablando de una situación altamente improbable que está ocurriendo ahora o en el futuro.
  • Es importante entender que, aunque utilicemos el tiempo pasado, nos estamos refiriendo a hechos que suceden en el presente o en el futuro.
  • Se entiende de la misma manera en castellano
    • Si tuviera más tiempo (presente, no probable), leería más (presente/futuro).
Second Conditional use

Examples

Second Conditional example 1
  • Ejemplo #1:
    • Si tuviera 10 millones de dólares, compraría casas en distintos países.
  • Meaning:
    • No tengo 10 millones de dólares (presente), así que no compraré casas en distintos países (futuro)
  • Ejemplo 2:
    • No viviría en Nueva York a menos que tuviera un trabajo bien pagado.
  • Meaning:
    • Hay muy pocas probabilidades de que consiga un trabajo bien pagado (presente), así que no me mudaré a Nueva York (futuro).
Second Conditional example 2
Second Conditional example 3
  • Ejemplo #3:
    • Si mi jefe planificara un poco más las reuniones, no serían una pérdida de tiempo (waste of time).
  • Meaning:
    • Es probable que mi jefe no planifique las reuniones (presente), por lo que las reuniones seguirán siendo una pérdida de tiempo (futuro).

Conditionals

Si quieres ver más sobre English Conditional 1 y 2, haz click aquí para ver nuestro vídeo.

Cursos inglés

Si te gustó nuestra explicación de English Grammar: Second Conditional, también ofrecemos cursos de inglés para todos los niveles y necesidades.

  • Business English en grupo y InCompany (online y presencial)
  • Preparación de exámenes A2, B1, B2, C1, C2
  • Conversación
  • Inglés General
English Expressions: Waste of time

English Expressions: Waste of time

English Expressions: Waste of time. This is the perfect expression to say that something is ‘una perdida de tiempo’. It’s a perfect translation, which doesn’t happen very often.

WASTE TIME

A WASTE OF (SOMEONE’S) TIME (noun phrase)

  • a pointless activity that does not make good use of your time
  • Both examples below have the same meaning. Using someone may give a bit more emphasis to the person.
  • a waste + of + time
    • Having to talk to each person individually is a waste of time.
    • I hate commuting to work every day. It’s a waste of time.
  • a waste + of + someone’s + time
    • Having to talk to each person individually is a waste of their time.
    • I hate commuting to work every day. It’s a waste of my time.

WASTE (SOMEONE’S) TIME (verb phrase)

  • to not use your time correctly
  • to not use the time you have available in a productive way
    • You should be doing your homework and not wasting time playing video games.
    • Don’t waste my time. I have a lot of things to do today.
    • I don’t know why they waste their time calling everyone when they can just send a text message.

Cursos inglés

En la Escuela de Idiomas de la Cámara de Comercio de Alava tenemos cursos de inglés para todos los niveles y necesidades

English Expressions

Now that you have seen English Expressions: Waste of time, take a look at our other Expression Session posts:
Expression Session: it is what it is
Expression Session: level the playing field

English Vocabulary: Time off

English Vocabulary: Time off

English Vocabulary: Time off. Time off is a way to refer to all types of ‘leaves’ from work without giving too many details. It can refer to medical leave, maternity/paternity leave or simply vacation/holidays.

TIME OFF

  • A period of time that you do not have to go to work due to illness, holiday, permission, etc.
    • She’s going to take some time off after the baby is born.
    • They are taking some time off to get some help for their ageing parents.
    • I was wondering if I could take some time off at the end of the month.

COLLOCATIONS WITH TIME OFF

  • Time off to do something
    • Tom would like to get some time off to relax.
    • More and more fathers are taking time off to care for their children.
  • Time off for something
    • It’s hard to get time off for vacation in the U.S.
    • I wouldn’t want to use my time off for sick days.
  • Time off from something
    • Mary is requesting some time off from her job.
    • An increasing number of people are receiving time off from work due to stress.
  • VERBS USED WITH TIME OFF
    • take
    • have
    • get
    • give
    • be given
    • receive
    • request

English Vocabulary

Now that you have seen English Vocabulary: Time off, take a look at our other Vocab Rehab posts:
Vocab Rehab: Strive
Vocab Rehab: Bargain

Cursos inglés 2024

Cursos Inglés 2024

Cursos inglés 2024

Cursos Inglés 2024 en la Escuela de Idiomas de la Cámara de Comercio de Alava. El aprendizaje de un idioma no es de solo 3 meses, es para todo la vida. Llevo 16 años en España y sigo aprendiendo. Por eso tenemos diversas clases donde puedes elegir algo que realmente sea para tus intereses durante el curso 2024.

Business English

Es cierto que ya no van a hacer exámenes de Cambridge para negocios, pero no quiere decir que no es necesario seguir con los cursos de inglés para los negocios. Muchos alumnos míos sacaron su nivel C1 en inglés pero cuando empezaron a trabajar, se han dado cuenta que no tenían el vocabulario necesario para ello.

Este semestre tenemos dos cursos de Business English:

  • Lunes y miércoles de 20:00 a 21:30 online – Nivel B2/C1
  • Martes y jueves de 18:00 a 19:30 presencial – Nivel B2

Preparación de Exámenes

Tenemos cursos y intensivos para sacar los títulos de A2, B1, B2, C1 y C2 con Cambridge y/o Oxford.
Sean atentos, el Oxford Test of English va a sacar un examen online de B2/C1 durante el 2024. Aquí te podemos preparar y realizar el examen.

  • CAE C1 Advanced
  • B2/C1 Oxford Test of English (coming in May)
  • A2/B1/B2 Oxford Test of English
  • FIRST – B2
  • A2 – Cambridge

Conversation

Tenemos grupos para la gente que quiere mantener su inglés y ganar más fluidez. Vemos vocabulario sobre temas corrientes, acompañado por un video de 5 minutos o de un artículo y luego una conversación utilizando el vocabulario aprendido.

  • Conversation C1/C2 martes y jueves de 8:30 a 10:00
  • Conversation B2/C1 los jueves a las 17:30 a 19:00.

Cursos inglés 2024

Para encontrar un curso inglés 2024 que es apropiado para ti, ponte en contacto con nosotros aquí

Making requests in English

Making requests in English

Making requests in English. It’s true that us Americans are very direct giving answers and advice, however, when we need to request something, we usually take the indirect, more polite route. In Spanish, you would call this ‘haciendo pelota’ (kissing ass in English) but I promise it’s just built into us since childhood.

MAKING SIMPLE REQUESTS

A simple request means you ask someone to do something they are expected to complete. The reader needs to comply with the request.

  • Can you call Carol and cancel tomorrow’s meeting please?
  • Would you mind picking Lucia up from school today?

Sometimes a simple request is more like a reminder.

  • Could you please send me that report I asked for?
  • So, can you drop by after work?

Form

You have decided to use these phrases as they are the most appropriate for the situation. Now, let’s use them properly.

CAN / COULD

Remember that ‘could’ is more polite than ‘can’. This is the only difference between the two words.

  • Can + subject + please + infinitive without to + object
    • Can we please call him?
  • Can + subject + infinitive without to + object + please
    • Can John look for the cat please?
  • Could + subject + please + infintive without to + object
    • Could you pease tell me you name?
  • Could + subject + infinitive without to + object + please
    • Could she stop singing please. I can’t concentrate.

WOULD YOU MIND

To learn more about the different uses of the phrase ‘Would you mind?, click here.

  • Would + subject + mind + gerund (+object)
    • Would you mind going? I’m very busy.
    • Would he mind finishing up early tonight?

ASKING FOR FAVORS OR MAKING BIG REQUESTS

When we ask people for favors or big requests, remember to use more polite language or they are less likely to say yes.

Asking for favors and big requests means that the reader does not need to comply with your request.

  • I was wondering if I could take the day off tomorrow.
  • Do you think Clare might be able to cover me?
  • I was hoping she could give three classes.

FORM

As was the case previously, it is important to know how to properly use these expressions.

Was/were wondering if…

Here we are using an indirect question to request something. To learn more about indirect questions, click here.

  • Subject + was/were wondering + if + request (could + infinitive without to + object)
    • I was wondering if you could help me with this project.
    • I was wondering if Joe could take my place.
    • Paul was wondering if Ann could purchase the materials.
    • We were wondering if your team could give us a hand.

Do you think …

Here there are two versions. ‘Do you think you could‘, which is less polite than ‘Do you think you might be able to‘. However, both are good options. Since you are asking someone directly, we always start with ‘Do YOU think…’. If you ask ‘Does Carol think … ‘, we are asking someone for their opinion and it is no longer a request.

  • Do you think + person + could + infintive without to (+ object)
    • Do you think you could come over?
    • Do you think that Jennifer could finish my part?
  • Do you think + person + might be able to + infinitive without to (+object)
    • Do you think I might be able to take Monday off?
    • Do you think Martin might be able to do it?

I was hoping…

Here we can make a request for ourselves or for someone else. Since this is not a direct question, it may be unclear sometimes that this is a request, but it is!

  • Subject + was hoping (+that) + person + could + infintive without to (+object)
    • I was hoping I could leave early today.
    • Emma was hoping that you could send her the homework.

Writing Rules

Now that you have seen Making requests in English, take a look at our other Writing Rules posts:
Writing Rules: C1 Advanced Writing
Writing Rules: Formal and informal emails

Cursos inglés

Si buscas un curso de preparación de exámenes, de Business English o simplemente de conversación, tenemos una oferta amplia. Haz clic aquí para ver nuestros horarios o ponte en contacto con nosotros a través de idiomas@camaradealava.com

Curso Inglés para Negocios B2

Curso Inglés para Negocios B2

Empieza el 2024 bien con un Curso Inglés para Negocios B2 en la Cámara de Comercio de Álava en un ambiente de adultos.

Curso Inglés para Negocios

¿Qué aprendo en un curso de negocios?

  • Development and training
  • Making contact – telephone, presentations, meetings
  • Reading comprehension about marketing, brands, reports
  • Writing – emails, reports, graphs, sales pitch, correspondence with customers.
  • Sales – presenting and selling products
  • Negotiations – products, prices, interviews, salary
  • Presentations – presenting your ideas, product, prices, etc.
  • Meetings – expressing your opinion, explaining your work

¿Por qué un curso de negocios y no un curso general?

Cada día hay menos cursos específicos para los negocios y eso es un error porque hay muchas diferencias entre ellos. Aquí tienen unos ejemplos:

  1. Lenguaje para el teléfono
    • para trabajar en inglés, tienes que saber contestar el teléfono, recibir información y transmitir esa información. La mayoría de los libros de inglés general ni tocan el tema de teléfono.
  2. Negociaciones
    • Aunque en una clase de inglés general te enseñan como ser ‘polite’, no te enseñan ser directos y precisos para las situaciones de negocios. Polite es importante en ciertas situaciones, pero no en todas.
  3. Small talk
    • Cuando vas a una reunión, primero tienes que presentarte y hablar de cosas como el clima y el viaje. Tal ves en una clase de inglés general aprendes hablar sobre el medio ambiente o crímenes, pero no te sirve hablar de eso antes de una reunión.
  4. Presentaciones
    • Hablando enfrente de un publico de adultos en una reunión no es lo mismo que unos amigos en el bar. Vas a usar vocabulario diferente y hay que saber la diferencia.

Cursos de inglés

En la Escuela de Idiomas de la Cámara de Comercio, tenemos cursos para todos los niveles y intereses. Para ver los horarios, pincha aquí

  • Curso Inglés para Negocios B2
  • Business English B2/C1 online
  • Preparación de exámenes A2, B1, B2, C1, C2
  • Conversación B2, C1, C2
English Vocabulary: strive

English Vocabulary: Strive

English Vocabulary: strive. Strive can be a complicated word to use because it doesn’t actually collocate with a wide variety of words. And although some people may translate it as ‘tratar’ or ‘esforzarse’ in Spanish, it doesn’t actually capture the full meaning of the word. In situations like these, it’s good to see examples and the words that it does collocate with in order to apply the word correctly.

STRIVE

  • to try very hard to achieve or accomplish something
  • strive + infinitve
    • She strives to do her best in everything she does.
    • We are always striving to learn new things to apply at our jobs.
  • strive + for + noun
    • If he continues to strive for perfection, he will wear himself out.
    • Their slogan is ‘Strive for excellence’.

COLLOCATIONS WITH STRIVE

Strive + to + infinitive + something

  • strive to____ something
    • achieve
    • be
    • become
    • (not) die
    • do
    • (not) fail
    • improve
    • (not) lose
    • offer
    • provide
    • succeed at

Strive + for + something

  • strive for ____
    • excellence
    • greatness
    • perfection
    • success

adverb + strive

  • ____ strive
    • always
    • constantly
    • continuously

Vocab Rehab

Now that you’ve seen our post about English Vocabulary: strive, check out our other Vocab Rehab posts:
Vocab Rehab: bargain
Vocab Rehab: inclusive language

Cursos inglés

En la Escuela de Idiomas de la Cámara de Comercio, tenemos cursos de inglés para todos los necesidades y niveles.

English Expression: It is what it is

English Expression: It is what it is

English Expression: It is what it is. There are those times when you need to say ‘es lo que hay’ and this is the phrase you will need to use in this case.

IT IS WHAT IT IS

  • Used to say that we can not change the situation and that we have to accept it.
  • An expression to say ‘there’s nothing we can do about it now’.
    • If only I knew earlier that it was going to rain. I would have brought the clothes inside. Well, I can’t do anything about it now. It is what it is.
    • It is what it is. He doesn’t want to go to the game. We aren’t going to force him.

Cursos de inglés

Si estás buscando cursos de inglés, tenemos una oferta amplia en la Escuela de Idiomas de la Cámara de Comercio de Alava. Ponte en contacto con nosotros idiomas@camaradealava.com o llamanos a 945 150 190.

  • Inglés para negocios (niveles A2 a C1)
  • Preparación de exámenes de Cambridge y de Oxford Test of English. Somos centro examinador de Oxford Test of English. Puedes programar un examen hoy para la semana que viene.
  • Inglés general (niveles A1 a C2)
  • Clases de conversación una vez o dos veces a la semana
  • Cursos InCompany para ti y para tu empresa.

English Expressions

Now that you have seen English Expression: It is what it is, have a look at our other Expression Session posts:
Expression Session: level the playing field
Expression Session: turn over a new leaf

C1 Advanced Writing

C1 Advanced Writing

C1 Advanced Writing

C1 Advanced Writing. In part 2 of the CAE C1 Advanced Cambridge exam, you have the option of choing between writing a report, a letter or email, a review or a proposal. It can be confusing, knowing what to put and where. Here I have reduced the information into categories to help you remember.

REPORT

  • In reports, remember to add:
    • a title and sub-headings for each paragraph
    • formal or neutral style as reports tend to be for work
    • a beginning that clearly states the reason for writing the report.
    • Finish off the report with a conclusion or a recommendation that specifically addresses the reson for writing the report.

PROPOSALS

  • In reports, be sure to include:
    • a title and subheadings for each paragraph
    • a formal or neutral style
    • a clear argument that has reasons and examples backing it up. Remember RED.
    • persuasive language which is key to writing the proposal.
C1 Writing Proposals

LETTERS OR EMAILS

  • for letter and emails, be sure to include:
    • the receiver’s name in the correct style (use Mr, Ms, Miss or Mrs + full name for formal letters. Use person’s first name for informal ones.
    • a formal, neutral or informal style depending on who you are writing to.
    • correct openings and closings (Dear, Good Morning, Sincerely, Thanks, etc)

REVIEWS

  • For reviews, remember to add:
    • an interesting title
    • formal or neutral style
    • an interesting fact, a question or an antecdote to begin the review in order to capture the reader’s attention
    • your opinion and back it up with clear examples.
    • some factual informal
    • persuasive language if want the reader to do read, listen, shop, etc to what you are writing about.
C1 Writing Reviews

WRITING TIPS

I can’t stress enough how important it is to go back and re-read your writing. The most common errors to check for are:

  • Subject-verb agreement (singular or plural)
  • articles (a, the, some)
  • prepositions 
  • use of correct tenses
  • word order 
  • spelling mistakes
  • over-all flow and organization of your writing.

WRITING RULES

Now that you have read C1 Advanced Writing, take a look at our other Writing Rules posts:
Writing Rules: Formal and Informal
Writing Rules: Giving Advice

English Vocabulary: Bargain

English Vocabulary: Bargain

English Vocabulary: Bargain. You are familiar with the word negotiate, but bargain can also be used to discuss prices in an office or out on the street.

BARGAIN

  • verb
  • to try to convince someone to offer a service or do something for you at a cheaper price.
    • Don’t be afraid to bargain for the price of the clothes.
    • I really don’t feel comfortable bargaining for the price when it is already very cheap.
  • noun
  • something that is sold for less than it’s real value.
    • I got the sofa for a real bargain.
    • We should go shopping this weekend. There are lots of bargains for Christmas.

STRIKE A BARGAIN

  • make a deal
  • come to an agreement about what each party will be doing.
    • The union finally struck a bargain with Michelin and the workers will go back to work next week.
    • It is in their favor to strike a bargain before this gets messy.

Vocab Rehab

Now that you have seen English Vocabulary: Bargain, take a look at our other Vocab Rehab posts:
Vocab Rehab: inclusive language
Vocab Rehab: spot on

Cursos inglés

En la Escuela de Idiomas de la Cámara de Alava, tenemos cursos de inglés para todas las necesidades y niveles: A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2

English writing: Formal and informal

English writing: Formal and informal

English writing: Formal and informal

English writing: Formal and informal. Truth be told, we are not as formal as you think, especially Americans. Not only that, but if you are still using very formal language with me after we have known each other for some time, I may feel offended. Formal language can be seen as cold and distant. So, I’m not saying forget everything your teachers have taught you, if you need to write a cover letter, a formal complaint or a first email to a new client, formal language is the way to go. But, once you have a relationship, lighten up.

REASON FOR WRITING

  • Formal: In relation to our previous email…
    • In relation to our previous email, we are willing to reduce the shipping charges.
  • Informal: Just to follow up on our chat…
    • Just to follow up on chat, we are happy to reduce the shipping charge.
  • Formal: I’m writing to inform you…
    • I’m writing to inform you that you have been accepted into the University of Chicago.
  • Informal: Just to let you know…
    • Just to let you know – I got in! I’m going to UofC!
  • Formal: We are delighted to inform you that.
    • We are delighted to inform you that your request has been accepted.
  • Informal: Guess what…
    • Guess what! We just got your package today.

ATTACHMENTS

  • Formal: Please find attached
    • Please find attached the documents you requested.
  • Informal: I’m attaching / I’ve attached
    • I’m attaching the documents to asked for.
    • I’ve attached the documents here.

REQUESTS

  • Formal: Please take into account…
    • Please take into account that the meeting starts at 10 am.
  • Informal: Don’t forget to…
    • Don’t forget to join the meeting at 10.

CLOSING AN EMAIL

  • Formal: I look forward to seeing you on Monday.
  • Informal: See you on Monday. Hope to see you on Monday.

English Writing

Now that you have seen English writing: Formal and informal, have a look at our other Writing Rules posts:
Writing Rules: Gerunds that follow to
Writing Rules: Giving advice