English: Inclusive language

English: Inclusive language

English: Inclusive language

English: Inclusive language. As society evolves, so does language. It’s important to make sure that you are using language that is inclusive and does not discriminate against individuals in and out of the office.

INCLUSIVE LANGUAGE

  • language that does not discriminate
  • language that represents different people in a positive way

GENDER INCLUSIVE LANGUAGE

  • to refer to the male and female workers in your business, use workforce, personnel or staff.
    • There are 200 men and women that make up our worforce.
  • manpower is a sexist word that refers to a time when women did not work. It also sounds as if men are powerful and women are not.
  • Other examples of gender inclusive language includes saying ‘Hello everyone’ instead of ‘Hello guys’ to refer to women and men.
  • please stop calling women over the age of 18, girls. They are women. Calling them a girl sounds as though they are innocent or incapable.
    • Women make up 50% of the Board of Directors.
  • Refering to men and women as female or male staff members/members of staff is also an acceptable,
    • The male members of staff are requesting a new changing room.

Inclusive language for people with disabilities

  • Disabled member of staff or a person with disabilities, although is not a great alternative, it is what we have as of November 2023.
    • If we want to invite Arantxa for lunch, we need to make sure that our house is accessible for someone with a disability.
  • Handicapped and differently-abled were both terms that were used at one point and are no longer seen as positive.
  • Know someone who has a disability? Ask them how they prefered to be called.

Age inclusive language

  • nobody wants to be called old, so stop using this word and use elderly to talk about people over the age of 70.
    • The elderly are often excluded from society.
  • For those staff members who are up in age, try experienced worker, senior worker or senior member of staff.
    • Our senior workers are our most valuable members of staff.

Inclusive language about one’s sexual orientation

  • Don’t asume that the person in front of you is married and that they are to a man or a woman. Instead of asking about their husband or wife, ask about their partner.
  • Don’t asume a man dates a woman and vice versa, ask if they are dating anyone.
  • There exist lots of different ways in which LGBTQ+ liked to be addressed. If you aren’t sure how to address someone, ask them.
  • Again, if you aren’t sure how to address people at work, at a bar or at the dinner table, ask them.

Vocabulary in English

Now that you have seen English: Inclusive language, have a look at our other Vocab Rehab Posts.

Cursos inglés

En la Escuela de idiomas de la Camara de Comercio tenemos cursos de inglés para todos los niveles y necesidades.

English Expression: turn over a new leaf

English Expression: turn over a new leaf

English Expression: turn over a new leaf. This seems like the perfect idiom for this time of year when the leaves on the trees are falling. Turning over a new leaf means starting fresh and changing your behavior.

TURNING OVER A NEW LEAF

  • to say that someone is beginning to behave in a better, kinder way.
  • to behave in a positive way
    • I’m so glad that you spoke to Sarah. She’s really turned over a new leaf and even seems happier in her job.
    • You can’t expect him to just turn over a new leaf if he doesn’t even know that he is behaving poorly. Talk to him.

Expression Session

Now that you have seen English Expression: turn over a new leaf, take a look at our other Expression Session posts:
Expression Session: have skeletons in one’s closet
Expression Session: bear in mind

Cursos de inglés

En la Escuela de Idiomas de la Cámara de Comercio de Alava, tenemos cursos para todos los niveles y necesidades. Para poder inscribirte en un curso o para recibir información, pinche aquí.

  • Cursos para principiantes, nivel A1 y A2, inglés general y de negocios
  • Cursos de preparación de exámenes de niveles A2, B1, B2, C1 y C2
  • Inglés para negocios (grupales, individuales, presencial y online)
  • Conversación, nivel B2, C1, C2
English Expression: Have skeletons in one's closet

English Expression: Have skeletons in one’s closet

English Expression: Have skeletons in one’s closet. It’s Halloween time, so let’s take a look at this very Halloweeny idiom.

HAVE SKELETONS IN ONE’S CLOSET

  • to have a secret about something bad that you have done in the past
    • I’m not sure I trust him. I think he has some skeletons in his closet.
    • We all have skeletons in our closets. I promise I won’t judge you if you tell me them.
  • to have a secret about something embarrassing that happened to you in the past.
    • Don’t bring up all my skeletons in the closet in front of John. It’s too embarrassing.
    • Nobody’s family is perfect. They all have skeletons in the closet.

SKELETONS IN THE CUPBOARD

  • Has the same meaning as skeletons in the closet.
    • I don’t like talking about my skeletons in the cupboard.
    • He never talks about himself. I think he has some skeletons in his cupboard that he doesn’t want to talk about.

Halloween vocabulary

Now that you have seen English Expression: Have skeletons in one’s closet, take a look at our other Halloween-based posts:
How to carve a pumpkin
Vocab Rehab: synonyms for scary
Podcast: off the cuff: Halloween!

Cursos inglés

En la Escuela de Idiomas de la Cámara de Comercio, tenemos cursos de inglés para todos los niveles y necesidades. Ponte en contacto con nosotros: idiomas@camaradealava.com

English Vocabulary: Spot-on

English Vocabulary: Spot-on

English Vocabulary: Spot-on. Here is one of those words that really doesn’t have a specific translation in Spanish, although there are lots of words you could use in its place. You could say correcto (although correct exists in English), you could say precisamente (althouth precise exists in English). Basically spot–on is a way to say you are exactly right, emphasizing how impressed I am with how accurate something is.

SPOT-ON

  • to describe something that is exactly right
  • used to emphasize surprise at how accurate something is
    • You were spot-on about Josh. He really is generous with everyone.
    • Your predictions about the course were spot-on. The teacher is excellent and I am really enjoying it.
    • Unfortunetly, your predictions about the end of the year sales were spot-on. We will have to lay people off next year.

Cursos inglés Vitoria

En la Escuela de Idiomas de la Cámara de Comercio de Alava, tenemos cursos de inglés para todas las necesidades y niveles. Puedes ver todos los cursos aquí. Para poder apuntarse a un grupo, pincha aquí o ponte en contacto con nosotros: idiomas@camaradealava.com, 945 150 190

English Vocabulary

Now that you have seen English Vocabulary: Spot-on, have a look at our other Vocab Rehab posts:
Vocab Rehab: foresight
Vocab Rehab: sign up

English Expression: Bear in mind

English Expression: Bear in Mind

English Expression: Bear in mind. When speaking to adults, you don’t always want to tell them to ‘Remember…’ or ‘Don’t forget…’. So, instead we can use this nice expression to tell someone to take something into consideration.

BEAR IN MIND

  • to take something into consideration
  • to remember something when you are making a decision.
    • Please bear in mind that you only have 2 weeks to return the product.
    • Before we buy the refrigerator we need to bear in mind that we may also need to buy a wash machine soon.
    • Bearning in mind that she’s so young, she really knows how to play the violin.

KEEP IN MIND

  • this expression is the same as bear in mind.
    • Keep in mind that the plane leaves very late at night.
    • He told me to keep him in mind if we have a job opening.

English Expressions

Now that you have seen English Expression: Bear in mind, take a look at our other Expression Session Posts:
Expression Session: brush up on something
Expression Session: neither here nor there

Cursos Inglés

En la Escuela de Idiomas de la Cámara de Alava tenemos cursos para todos los niveles y necesidades. Para recibir más información sobre los cursos, ponte en contacto con nosotros: idiomas@camaradealava.com, llamar a 945 150 190 o inscribirte aquí.

  • Business English
  • Preparación de Exámenes de Cambridge, EILTS, Oxford Test of English
  • Inglés General
English Vocabulary: foresight

English Vocabulary: foresight

English Vocabulary: foresight. someone who has foresight is not a magician or a fortune teller. It is simply someone who can read a situation, judge what the possible outcomes may be and learns to plan in a way for this situation. Some people may have foresight at work but not with relationships, or vice versa. Other people may be able to see what is going to happen but don’t know how to plan for that situation. Someone with foresight can do both.

HAVE THE FORESIGHT (noun)

  • to have ability to understand a situation and it’s possible outcomes and
  • be able to plan for this situation
    • He had the foresight to leave his job before they went bankrupt.
    • If Carol had the foresight to sell the house before the market crash, she should have had the foresight to save some money as well.

FORESEE (verb)

  • to be able to judge a situation and make plans to deal with it.
    • He didn’t forsee the divorce at all, so he was shocked when his wife told him.
    • They forsaw the war and made plans to leave the country as soon as they could.

(UN)FORESEEABLE (adjective)

  • foreseeable: an event or situation that can be predicted
    • She will be working in the school for the forseeable future.
  • unforseeable: an event or situation that can not be predicted.
    • I lost my job last month, so for the unforseeable future, I will be unemployed.

Vocab Rehab

Now that you have seen English Vocabulary: foresight, have a look at our other Vocab Rehab posts:
Vocab Rehab: sign up
Vocab Rehab: steal vs rob

Cursos inglés

En la Escuela de Idiomas de la Cámara de Comercio de Alava, tenemos cursos de inglés para todos las necesidades y niveles. Mira nuestras cursos aquí.

English Vocabulary: Sign up

English Vocabulary: sign up

English Vocabulary: sign up. This phrasal verb is a very important one to know. This month you need to SIGN UP for English class, dance class, art class or any other activity that you are hoping to be a part of. My kids always make the mistake of saying to me, ‘Did you inscribirme in the class?’ And I respond, ‘No, I signed you up.’ It’s such a basic phrase, but even they never seem to use it.

SIGN UP

  • Phrasal verb. Learn more about how to use phrasal verbs here.
  • to join or agree to be a part of an activity or event.
    • I signed my daughter up for dance class.
    • Julie signed up for the marathon.

Vocab Rehab

Now that you have learned about English Vocabulary: sign up, take a look at our other Vocab Rehab posts:
Vocab Rehab: steal vs rob
Vocab Rehab: to be promoted

Cursos inglés

En la Escuela de Idiomas de la Cámara de Comercio de Alava, tenemos cursos de inglés para todos los niveles y necesidades. Puedes mirar nuestros cursos y horarios aquí o pónte en contacto con nosotros a idiomas@camaradealava.com

  • Inglés General A2, B1, B2, C1, C2
  • Inglés para negocios (Business English) A2, B1, B2, C1, C2
  • Preparación de exámenes de Cambridge, Oxford Test of English y EOI
English Vocabulary: steal vs rob

English Vocabulary: steal vs rob

English Vocabulary: steal vs rob. These words have a lot in common, but there is a clear difference.

STEAL

  • irregular verb: steal, stole, stolen
  • take objects from someone or something without their permission.
    • He stole the wallet from my purse.
    • My computer was stolen yesterday at school.

ROB

  • regular verb: rob, robbed, robbed
  • robbery happens to people or places.
    • He robbed me in the bar.
    • They robbed the bank before getting away.

English Vocabulary

Now that you learned about English Vocabulary: steal vs rob, take a look at our other Vocab Rehab posts:
Vocab Rehab: to be promoted
Vocab Rehab: hear vs listen

Cursos inglés en Vitoria

Si quieres certificar tu nivel de inglés, mejorar tus posibilidades de trabajar o simplemente mantener tu nivel, tenemos curos para todos las necesidades y niveles en la Escuela de Idiomas de la Cámara de Comercio. Pincha aquí para saber más. Ponte en contacto con nosotros a idiomas@camaradealava.com.

  • Cursos de preparación para los exámenes de Cambridge B2, C1, C2 y Oxford Test of English A2, B1, B2
  • Business English Courses – Cursos para negocios
    • presencial y online
    • InComany – cursos deseñados para ti y tu empresa
  • Inglés de mantenimiento B2, C1 y C2
  • Cursos de inglés general
English Expression: neither here nor there

English Expression: Neither here nor there

English Expression: neither here nor there. Want a nice way to say ‘ what you are saying is irrelevant’? Here is your expression. Although, like so many expressions in Enlgish, be careful with your tone.

NEITHER HERE NOR THERE

  • Used to say that something is not important
  • somethng is not relevant to the currect conversation or problem.
    • Whether she was drinking or not is neither here nor there. I just want to know if she is safe.
    • His looks are neither here nor there. I just want to know if he is a nice guy.
    • Their nationality is neither here nor there. Can they work?

English Expressions

Now that you have seen English Expression: neither here nor there, take a look at our other Expression Session posts:
Expression Session: dodge the bullet
Expression Session: hang in there

Cursos inglés

En la Escuela de Idiomas de la Cámara de Alava, tenemos todos tipos de cursos para las personas de 16 a 99 años.

  • Cursos de preparación de exámenes de Cambridge y Oxford B1, B2, C1, C2
  • Inglés General A2, B1, B2, C1, C2
  • Inglés para negocios / Business English A2, B1, B2, C1

Para ver más sobre los cursos que ofrecemos, pincha aquí.

English Vocabulary: to be promoted

English Vocabulary: to be promoted

English Vocabulary: to be promoted. Today we celebrate the fact that our local football club, Alaves has been promoted to First Division! ¡Aupa Alaves! Click here to read more about Vitoria-Gasteiz’s Alaves team, but before you do that, let’s take a look at the different meanings of promote. Also, check out the collocations used with promote.

TO BE PROMOTED

  • to raise someone to a more important position
  • Usually someone is promoted to something
    • John has just been promoted to the head of his department, so we are having a party for him.
    • If the team wins the next game, then they will be promoted to 2nd Division.

TO PROMOTE

  • to encourage people to like and/or buy a product
    • Kristen is promoting a new line of cosmetics, so you should buy from her.
    • If you really want to promote your product well, you should talk to an advertising company.
  • To encourage people to like and support an idea.
    • The world leaders really need to promote the idea of taking care of the planet or else there will never be real change.
    • They promote peace talks between the two countries.

COLLOCATIONS WITH PROMOTE

  • adverbs that collocate with promote
    • actively, positively, widely
      • We are actively promoting English classes, so sign up today.
    • aggressively, heavily,
      • I’m not sure I agree with such aggressive promoting, but I see that it is effective.
    • effectively, successfully
      • The company is successfully promoting the product nationally and plans to go international.
  • nouns that collocate with promote
    • access, diversity, equality, human rights, awareness
      • I do all I can to promote diversity and inclusion at work and at home.
    • efficiency, innovation, education,
      • If the government really wants to promote innovation, they need to provide more grant money to start up businesses.
    • business, growth, development
      • The new mayor says she want to promote growth, so she is presenting a new bill.
    • competition, debate, dialogue, trade
      • If we don’t promote dialogue and debate, then we will never grow as a country.

English Vocabulary

Now that you saw ‘English Vocabulary: to be promoted‘, take a look at our other Vocab Rehab posts:
Vocab Rehab: hear vs listen
Vocab Rehab: raise, rise, arise

Cursos de inglés

En la Escuela de Idiomas de la Cámara de Comercio de Álava, tenemos cursos para todos los niveles y necesidades. Contáctanos a idiomas@camaradealava.com. Tenemos cursos online y presencial para mayores de 16 años.

English Vocabulary: hear vs Listen

English Vocabulary: hear vs listen

English Vocabulary: hear vs listen. These two verbs get mixed up all the time. So, let’s look at how they are different and how they are similar.

HEAR

  • Irregular, Transitive and Intransitive verb
  • Think of ‘hear’ as an event.
    • I heard what the Prime Minister said yesterday. The focus is on the event of the Prime Minister, not that I heard it.
  • You receive a sound / you are conscious of a sound
    • Did you hear that? I think someone is at the door.
  • You understand a piece of information
    • He heard they are getting a divorce.

LISTEN

  • Regular, transitive verb
  • Usually followed by ‘to’
  • Think of listen to as an action.
  • He never listens to me when I’m speaking. It’s so annoying. (The focus is on the action of listening.)
  • To give your attention to someone or something.
    • I listened to the whole album and I love it.

HEAR OR LISTEN

Sometimes we can use both hear or listen in a sentence. However, the meaning changes a bit.

  • Remember, we use ‘hear’ to focus on the activity and ‘listen’ to focus on the action.
    • I love hearing the rain hitting the window. (the focus is on the rain hitting the window)
    • I love listening to the rain hitting the window. (the focus is on listening)

English Vocabulary

Now that you have read about English Vocabulary: hear vs listen, take a look at our other vocabulary based posts:
Vocab Rehab: Raise, Rise, Arise
Vocab Rehab: Backlash

Cursos de inglés

En la Escuela de Idiomas de la Cámara de Comercio de Álava, tenemos cursos de inglés para todos los niveles y necesidades.

English Expressions: Dodge the Bullet

English Expressions: Dodge the Bullet

English Expressions: Dodge the Bullet. As you can see in the photo, a bullet (una bala) is what comes out of a gun (pistola). To dodge something is to avoid something by jumping out of the way quickly. The expression comes from the idea that if you get out of the way of a bullet, you can save your life. Although the expression isn’t used in this way today, it does refer to dodging something bad.

DODGE THE BULLET

  • To avoid an unpleasant situation or even danger
    • I’m so glad she broke up with him. She really dodged the bullet because he has a terrible reputation.
    • We really dodged a bullet by not going on vacation because there was a hurricane where we

English Expressions

Now that you have seen English Expressions: Dodge the Bullet, take a look at our other Expression Session posts:
Expression Session: Hang in there
Expression Session: Hammer out the details

Cursos de inglés

En la Escuela de Idiomas de la Cámara de Comercio tenemos cursos de inglés para todos los niveles y necesidades. Pincha aquí para apuntarte ahora o escribirnos a idiomas@camaradealava.com

  • Cursos de preparación de exámenes de A2 a C1
  • Oxford Test of English – www.oxfordtestofenglish.es
  • Cursos de preparación para el Oxford Test of English
  • Business English
  • In Company – cursos deseñados para ti y tu empresa
  • Inglés General
  • C1/C2 Mantenimiento
English Vocabulary: Raise Rise Arose

English Vocabulary: Raise, Rise, Arise

English Vocabulary: Raise, Rise, Arise. These three verbs can be very confusing. So, let’s break them down one by one.

Raise

English Vocabulary: Raise
  • Raise is a regular verb, which means that raised is the past and past participle.
  • It is a transitive verb which means that an object must follow the verb. This is the main difference between raise and rise. To learn more about transitive verbs click here.
  • We need to raise something.
    • He raised his hand. (hand is the object)
    • The government raised taxes (taxes is the object)

Rise

  • Rise is a irregular verb. Rose is the past tense and risen the past participle.
  • It is intransitive, so it is not followed by an object. Click here to learn more.
  • The temperature is rising. (no object needed)
  • She rose. (no object needed)
English Vocabulary: Rise

Arise

English Vocabulary: Arise
  • Arise, like rise, is an irregular verb. Arose is the past tense and arisen is the past participle .
  • It is also intransitive, so it is not followed by an object.
  • Arise means that something presents itself.
    • Should the need arise, … (should the need present itself…)

Collocations

It’s important to learn vocabulary in context. So, here are some of the words that tend to ‘collocate’ with Raise, Rise and Arise.

Raise

  • a question, a point,
  • I would like to raise a question here.
  • your hand, her leg, their heads
    • Please raise your hand if you know the answer.
  • standards
    • If you want to past the audit, your company must raise its standards.

Rise

  • dramatically, markedly, sharply, significantly, steeply, substantially
    • Profits rose substantially in the third quarter.
  • a little, slightly, higher, steadily, fast, quickly, rapidly
    • Sales dropped rapidly during the pandemic.
  • be expected to, be likely/unlikely to, be projected to, be set to, begin to, continue to
    • The number of people is unlikely to rise this late in the year.
  • above, by, from, in, in line with, to

Arise

  • naturally, spontaneously, directly
    • Sometime bad behaviour at school arises spontaneously.
  • may, might, be linkely to, be unlikely to
    • Disagreements are likely to arise out of a debate.
  • from, out of

English Vocabulary

Now that you have seen, English Vocabulary: Raise, Rise, Arise, have a look at our other posts:
Vocab Rehab: backlash
Vocab Rehab: strike

English Vocabulary: Backlash

English Vocabulary: Backlash

English Vocabulary: Backlash. Some say that all social issues face backlash at a certain moment. What kinds of rights are facing backlash by you?

BACKLASH

  • A reaction that goes against a previously popular idea or person.
  • A reverse movement.
  • a negative reaction to something
    • There has been a backlash against women’s rights in the US.
    • Governments who make very liberal or very conservative laws often face a lot of backlash from opposing sides and from their own side if they think their ideas are too extreme.

COLLOCATIONS WITH BACKLASH

Collocations are words that go together. Stop learning vocabulary by itself and learn it with the words that are used with it. Learning this way will also help you memorize the words more easily.

VERBS

  • Experience, face
    • The government is facing a backlash from Feminist Movements on both sides.
    • She is experiencing a backlash for not having consulted her partners.
  • Cause, create, prompt, provoke, spark
    • The gas company provoked a backlash for increasing their prices.
    • It was quite predictable that his message was going to spark a backlash from his voters.
  • Anticipate, expect, fear, predict
    • They should have anticipated the backlash and had a strategy to deal with it.
    • Even though she feared a backlash, she went ahead with the new regulation.

ADJECTIVES

  • Consumer
    • They promted a consumer backlash by not giving employees paid holidays.
  • Political
    • The Right is experiencing political backlash for having attacked their party’s famous icon.
  • Public
    • There will be strong public backlash to the increased retirement age.
  • Violent, racist, serious
    • Many States are facing a violent backlash from anti-immigrant supporters.
    • After COVID, many member of the Asian community incorrectly received racist backlash.

ENGLISH VOCABULARY

Now that you have seen English Vocabulary: Backlash, check out our other Vocab Rehab posts:
Vocab Rehab: strike
Vocab Rehab: sibling

English Vocabulary: Strike

English Vocabulary: Strike

English Vocabulary: Strike. May 2nd is an International Worker’s Rights Day. In countries all over the world, people are striking for better working conditions and better pay. There are many ways to use the word strike, so let’s take a look at some of them.

STRIKE (verb)

  • to refuse to continue working due to an arguement with your boss. Usaully over working conditions, pay, etc.
  • One person or a group of people can strike.
    • We are striking for better working conditions.
    • The teachers strike every year on the same day to raise awareness about a variety of educational concerns.
  • Strike can also mean to forcefully hit someone or something
    • He is in jail after striking a woman on the street for no reason.
    • Julie struck the football so hard that it hot the back wall.
  • Something that happens all of a sudden and has a major impact, usually negative.
    • The lightning struck the building and killed three people.
    • The storm is moving fast and they say it will strike within the hour.

GO ON STRIKE

  • Same meaning as strike.
    • The French workers are going on strike this weekend.
    • They went on strike last week.

STRIKE (NOUN)

  • A perdiod of time that a worker does not work due to arguement with management about working conditions, pay, etc.
    • The man died in prison after a 90-day hunger strike.
    • The workers are calling for a nationwide strike to happen next month.
  • A strong hit
    • The strike to his head may cause permanent damage.
    • The building was damaged by the lightning strikes.

Other meanings and collocations with strike

  • The clock strikes midnight in 5 minutes! (sounds a bell or turns that time)
  • He struck out their best hitter (baseball reference)
  • In baseball you only have three stikes and you’re out!
  • She stuck the ball as hard as she could. (hit the ball hard)
  • They said it wasn’t a good idea to teach children how to strike a match. (light a match)
  • I’m so mad I want to strike them from the list of attendees. (to take someone off a list)
  • When the country struck oil, everyone suddenly wanted to be their best friends. (found oil)
  • We finally struck a deal with them and we start work on Monday. (made an agreement)
  • Doesn’t it strike you as odd that she never even called? (to seem strange)
  • Although my partner didn’t want me too, I decided to take part in the strike. (join the strike)
  • There have been so many air strikes in the last week that I think most of the people have left the city. (military attacks from the air)

English Vocabulary

Now that you have seen English Vocabulary: strike, take a look at our other Vocab Rehab posts:
Vocab Rehab: Sibling
Vocab Rehab: decimal point

English Vocabulary: Sibling

English Vocabulary: Sibling

English Vocabulary: Sibling. Sibling is such a commonly used word. So, we do so few people know about it? How many siblings do you have?

SIBLING

  • A sister or a brother or both.
  • This is good to use instead of asking how many brothers and sisters someone has
  • It’s also very useful when you have several sisters and brothers.
    • How many siblings do you have?
    • I heard he has 13 siblings!
    • I don’t have any siblings.

Learning English Vocabulary

It can be difficult to remember all the vocabulary that you need to learn a new language! As the saying goes, ‘Practice makes perfect’. There are number of ways to improve vocabulary:

  1. Take our English quizzes on Instagram (@blogglish) every Monday, Wednesday and Friday
  2. Read! Read as much as you can. Read things that are at your level and try to pick up on the vocabulary based on the context of the sentence.
  3. Try to work in the vocabulary words we teach you here every week into your everyday conversations.
  4. Write in English. Even if you don’t write correctly, writing is a great practice.

English Vocabulary

Now that you have seen English Vocabulary: Sibling, take a look at our other Vocab Rehab posts:
Vocab Rehab: Apologize
Vocab Rehab: decimal point